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This concise book provides a survival toolkit for efficient, large-scale software development. Discussing a multi-contextual research framework that aims to harness human-related factors in order to improve flexibility, it includes a carefully selected blend of models, methods, practices, and case studies. To investigate mission-critical communication aspects in system engineering, it also examines diverse, i.e. cross-cultural and multinational, environments.
This book helps students better organize their knowledge bases, and presents conceptual frameworks, handy practices and case-based examples of agile development in diverse environments. Together with the authors’ previous books, "Crisis Management for Software Development and Knowledge Transfer" (2016) and "Managing Software Crisis: A Smart Way to Enterprise Agility" (2018), it constitutes a comprehensive reference resource that adds value to this book.
The present increase of attention toward blockchain-based systems is currently reaching a tipping point with the corporate focus shifting from exploring the technology potential to creating Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)-based systems. In light of a significant number of already existing blockchain applications driven by the Internet of Things (IoT) evolution, the developers are still facing a lack of tools and instruments for appropriate and efficient performance evaluation and behavior observation of different blockchain architectures. This paper aims at providing a systematic review of current blockchain evaluation approaches and at identifying the corresponding utilization challenges and limitations. First, we outline the main metrics related to the blockchain evaluation. Second, we propose the blockchain modeling and analysis classification based on the critical literature review. Third, we extend the review with publicly accessible industrial tools. Next, we analyze the selected results for each of the proposed classes and outline the corresponding limitations. Finally, we identify current challenges of the blockchain analysis from the system evaluation perspective, as well as provide future perspectives.
This paper summarizes practices of customer- driven services applied in the leading Russian bank to avoid the impact of financial sanctions (2014–2019). We show how economic sanctions and strict national policies triggered this bank to increase flexibility in customer care to attract more capital from their existing clients. The project comprised three stages: (1) to analyse requirements and to develop ‘‘as-is’’ state of processes; (2) to analyse best practices and to improve processes under the scope of flexibility and customer orientation; (3) to implement the new vision in ‘‘to-be’’ state and final verification. At the third research stage to assess the results of processes improvement in the bank within a year we have applied a set of methods based on data envelopment analysis which provides a multidimensional understanding of processes and new scopes of customer’s value profiles. We have found that process reengineering result could give the contribution already at the first month of implementation and argue the findings could be used to introduce flexible data-driven customer care and improve customer-related processes in organisations worldwide.
We propose an efficient algorithm based on boundary operator equations
for the numerical simulation of time-dependent waves in 3D. The algorithm employs
the method of difference potentials combined with the (strong) Huygens’ principle
(lacunae of the solution). It can handle nonconforming boundaries on regular structured
grids with no loss of accuracy and offers sublinear computational complexity.
In this paper we propose an approach for compact storage of big graphs. We
propose the preprocessing algorithms of a certain type of graphs which can
signi cantly increase the data density on the disc and increase performance
of fundamental operations with graphs.
The rapid development of information technologies and their widespread use in various sectors of the economy, including transportation, have led to a massive growth in data flows. However, the paradox of our time is that this data is not used to its full potential to provide companies with powerful impetus for their development. This is especially true at the strategic level, where company executives still mostly make decisions without relying on the recommendations of business intelligence systems. In the management of road transport, this phenomenon can be attributed to the fragmentation of data sources and the vague understanding of the relationships between them. This is also partially due to the diversity in opinions in the expert community on the efficiency of the transport processes. Thus, it is obvious that, without deciding on how to measure efficiency, it is hard to say where the data for calculations should be acquired from and what should be the architecture of a decision support system. Note that the diversity of data sources in the digital age creates prerequisites for various metrics that highlight different aspects of the transportation process.
This book gathers the best papers presented at the first conference held by the Russian chapter of the Association for Information Systems (AIS). It shares the latest insights into various aspects of the digitalization of the economy and the consequences of transformation in public administration, business and public life. Integrating a broad range of analytical perspectives, including economic, social and, technological, this interdisciplinary book is particularly relevant for scientists, digital technology users, companies and public institutions.
We investigate the evolutionary model with recombination and random switches in the fitness function due to change in a special gene. The dynamical behaviour of the fitness landscape induced by the specific mutations is closely related to the mutator phenomenon, which, together with recombination, plays an important role in modern evolutionary studies. It is of great interest to develop classical quasispecies models towards better compliance with the observation. However, these properties significantly increase the complexity of the mathematical models. In this paper, we consider symmetric fitness landscapes for several different environments, using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation (HJE) method to solve the system of equations at a large genome length limit. The mean fitness and surplus are calculated explicitly for the steady-state, and the relevance of the analytical results is supported by numerical simulation. We consider the most general case of two landscapes with any values of mutation and recombination rates (three independent parameters). The exact solution of evolutionary dynamics is done via a solution of a fourth-order algebraic equation. For the more straightforward case with two independent parameters, we derive the solution using a quadratic algebraic equation. For the simplest case, when there are two landscapes with the same mutation and recombination rates, we derive some effective fitness landscape, mapping the model with recombination to the Crow-Kimura model.
Abstract: This article is devoted to econometric analysis of the results of experiments conducted with two
agent-based models, which describe the movement of ground vehicles. There are two types of road users in
these models: manned ground vehicles (MGV) and unmanned ground vehicles (UGV). In the first model, the
main difference between UGV and MGV is an ability to exchange massages between UGV for transmitting
information about extreme situations, which allows them to adjust speed and direction of movement. In the
second model, in addition to the above differences, UGV have an additional advantage, namely, the ability to
intelligently assess density of traffic flow for efficient maneuvering. In these models, at a given roundabout,
traffic characteristics such as output stream traffic and the number of traffic accidents are analyzed. The main
task of the econometric analysis is to study dependence of these traffic characteristics on the model parameters
such as average vehicle speed, input flow rate, message exchange rate between UGV, and the impact of the
effect obtained from the implementation into UGV ability of intelligent estimation of traffic flow density.
The effectiveness of the research results’ implementation is one of the main indicators that must be taken into account in the allocation of budget funds for research. The requirement of efficiency of spending budget funds allocated for research works leads to the necessity for continuous improvement of the methodological apparatus of decision support on the allocation of funds, including considering the efficiency of implementation of previously obtained research results of each certain research institution. With the development of information technology, it is important to improve the quality of the use of budgetary funds through information support for decision making on the organization of research in the Health Ministry of Russia, based on the assessment of the potential of the research institution, reflecting their ability to achieve the stated results in the execution of state contracts. The technique of integrated assessment of the effectiveness of research results in scientific institutions of the Health Ministry of Russia is obtained in the framework of state assignments or state contracts on the basis of a set of scientometric and statistical indicators, as well as expert evaluation. The requirements to the methodology and indicators, and the requirements to the approaches and methods of expert evaluation are consistently given.
The purpose of research is to determine the areas and justify why the use of the lean concept in these areas can provide improved performance of road transport at industrial enterprises. The research methods included: observation, collection, and analysis of statistical data, expert survey, modeling a transportation system, developing indicators for evaluating the efficiency of transportation losses elimination. An analytical review showed that in lean transportation, the first steps in scientific research aimed at adapting the principles of lean production to road transport operation are being taken. The research revealed the existence of at least sixteen types of transportation losses. This fact differs significantly from the results of the losses research in the industry. An expert survey to analyze the losses is used. The Delphi method is used to identify the causal chains of factors leading to the loss generation. To evaluate the mutual impact of causes, a quantitative assessment is performed. This leads to a significant acceleration in the work aimed at improving the operations of road transport that provides services to industrial enterprises. The “black box” model of the transportation system allowed identifying the resources of the transportation process participants as inputs. There are two other groups of input factors: cargo characteristics and external environment impact. The output characteristics of the model include transportation volume and its quality indicators. A differentiation of the spent resources into useful costs, which are used for cargo transportation, and losses, which are proposed to estimate using cost indicators, was provided.
We develop an axisymmetric numerical MHD model that allows us to investigate the spatial characteristics of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and key solar wind plasma parameters from 20 to 400 solar radii over all heliolatitudes. The study is aimed at an analysis of the evolution of the spatial structure of the heliosphere through the solar cycle. We consider various combinations of the relative input of the quadrupole and dipole harmonics of the solar magnetic field to imitate the solar cycle. Self-consistent solutions for the IMF, electric current, solar wind speed, density, thermal pressure, and temperature in the solar wind are obtained. The spatial evolution of the IMF and properties of quasi-stationary current sheets (QCSs) are analyzed during different phases of the solar cycle. It is shown that a classic low-latitude heliospheric current sheet is formed in the solar wind as a part of the system of longitudinal and latitudinal electric currents symmetric in the northern and southern hemispheres only during solar minimum. While the quadrupole magnetic field increases, the second QCS appears. The model successfully describes a smooth transition from the state of the fast solar wind at high heliolatitudes and the slow solar wind at low heliolatitudes at solar minimum to the solar wind speed of the same values in a wide range of heliolatitudes at solar maximum. It reproduces the actively debated phenomenon of the south–north asymmetry of the IMF in the heliosphere and shows the distribution of thermal plasma parameters consistent with observations.
The present paper is devoted to the study of the mechanics of agent-informational clustering in a social network on the example of user segmentation tasks taking into account an influence criterion. The main features of data generated by social networks (social big data) and metrics that characterize influential network nodes are considered. A review of community-building algorithms based on the theory of social networks, as well as clustering methods based on machine learning, is carried out. Metrics for assessing the quality of segmentation are presented. The results of the application of methods (selected on the basis of the performed analysis) to a test dataset are shown. The limitations of the applicability of considered approaches and possible problems during the implementation of algorithms in the field of social network analysis are described. Evaluation of the effectiveness is performed.
In data envelopment analysis, methods for constructing sections of the frontier have been recently proposed to visualize the production possibility set. The aim of this paper is to develop, prove and test the methods for the visualization of production possibility sets using parallel computations. In this paper, a general scheme of the algorithms for constructing sections (visualization) of production possibility set is proposed. In fact, the algorithm breaks the original large-scale problems into parallel threads, working independently, then the piecewise solution is combined into a global solution. An algorithm for constructing a generalized production function is described in detail.
The mutator gene model is one of the fundamental models of modern evolutionary dynamics. Usually, one considers a transition between two evolutionary regimes: the wild-type and mutator type. In this study, we introduce a hierarchy of three types with the transitions between them, considering an extra allele for the mutator gene. We examine both the unidirectional transitions between types and symmetric transition case. The analytical solution obtained is supported by numerical simulations.
The article discusses construction of traveling wave type solutions for the Frenkel-Kontorova model on the propagation of longitudinal waves. For the first time, based on the existence and uniqueness theorem of traveling wave type solutions, as well as the approximation theorem, a complete family of traveling wave type solutions is constructed in the form of subfamilies of bounded solutions (horizontals) and unbounded solutions (verticals).
We study a problem of designing an optimal two-dimensional circularly symmetric convolution kernel (or point spread function (PSF)) with a circular support of a chosen radius R. Such function will be optimal for estimating an unknown signal (image) from an observation obtained through a convolution-type distortion with the additive random noise. This technique is then generalized to the case of an imprecisely known or random PSF of the measurement distortion. It is shown that the construction of the optimal convolution kernel reduces to a one-dimensional Fredholm equation of the first or a second kind on the interval [0,R]. If the reconstruction PSF is sought in a finite-dimensional class of functions, the problem naturally reduces to a finite-dimensional optimization problem or even a system of linear equations. We also analyze how reconstruction quality depends on the radius of the convolution kernel. It allows finding a good balance between computational complexity and quality of the image reconstruction.
The export supplies of metal products represent one of the traditional areas of specialization of Russia in the international trade relations. The feature of such deliveries is the dependence of the contract price on the chosen method of transportation of the delivered products to foreign partners. An important aspect is to ensure the reliability of transportation. The authors of the article proposed a new criterion for the total costs presented, allowing to take into account the direct costs of transportation and losses due to a decrease in the turnover of cash with an increase in delivery time. A mathematical model for evaluating the reliability of transportation is presented and calculations are performed. Attention is paid to the construction of the information platform for the analysis of transport and technological schemes and to ensure the interaction of transportation participants. The formation of a single information space and the provision of semantic compatibility in data exchange based on the ontological approach are recommended. The approach proposed by the authors of the article is used to compare the three main competing options for transporting metal products from Russia to Germany. It has been established that multimodal transportation using rail, sea and road transport is most preferable.
Procedures of sequential updating of information are important for “big data streams” processing because they avoid accumulating and storing large data sets. As a model of information accumulation, we study the Bayesian updating procedure for linear experiments. Analysis and gradual transformation of the original processing scheme in order to increase its efficiency lead to certain mathematical structures - information spaces. We show that processing can be simplified by introducing a special intermediate form of information representation. Thanks to the rich algebraic properties of the corresponding information space, it allows unifying and increasing the efficiency of the information updating. It also leads to various parallelization options for inherently sequential Bayesian procedure, which are suited for distributed data processing platforms, such as MapReduce. Besides, we will see how certain formalization of the concept of information and its algebraic properties can arise simply from adopting data processing to big data demands. Approaches and concepts developed in the paper allow to increase efficiency and uniformity of data processing and present a systematic approach to transforming sequential processing into parallel.